Let’s learn more #8:IDIOMS

Getting meaning

Why idioms? We derive meanings of a text/phrase/clause from the words in it. However, sometimes it is improper to deduce or get the meaning from a text by translating word by word.

What is an idiom?

An idiom is a group of words. In the usage, we can not get the meaning merely by translating the individual words (e.g., rain cats and dogssee the light ). When we heard an idiom, e.g. It is raining cats and dogs, it doesn’t literally mean that there are some cats and dogs falling down to the earth from the sky. This idiom shows a kind of rain, that is when the rain starts and stops.


LET’S LEARN MORE #6: Miss, Mrs. or Ms.?

Miss, Mrs., or Ms.?

What does “Miss” mean?

“Miss,” when attached to a name, is a title of respect for an unmarried woman. You can use it by itself as a term of address or combine it with a surname, a descriptor of a prominent characteristic, or something she represents.


Miss Penelope Edwards is the new nursery school teacher. (surname)

Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters is Miss Universe 2017. (something she represents)

Well, aren’t you little Miss Traveler? (prominent characteristic)

How do you use “Miss?”

Typically, in a business setting, you would use “Miss” along with an unmarried female’s last name. Don’t worry if you don’t know the woman’s last name; pausing after Miss suggests the woman to supply it to you. Make sure to use “Miss” for unmarried women you don’t know well or who hold positions of authority, such as teachers or supervisors.


Thanks for the invitation, Miss Janice . You are a great neighbor!

What does “Mrs.” mean?

“Mrs.” is a title of respect for a married or widowed woman. Sometimes the title includes her husband’s first and last name rather than her own, especially for written correspondence or when the wife’s name is unknown; this practices is becoming far less common than it was in the past, however.


Address the envelope to Mrs. Donald Belmont. (the wife of Donald Belmont)

How do you use “Mrs.”?

At work, when addressing married women, and when speaking to women in a position of authority, use “Mrs.” along with the married female’s last name. Always wait for an invitation to drop the formal title before using a woman’s first name.


Mrs. Jones is an amazing electrical engineer.

What does “Ms.” mean?

What if you don’t know whether someone is married or not? Unlike “Miss” or “Mrs.”, it doesn’t indicate a woman’s marital status. The title became popular during the women’s movement of the 1970s because “Ms.” seemed a suitable equivalent of “Mister,” a title of respect for both unmarried and married men.

How to Use “Ms.”

Apply the same rules as you would for “Miss” and “Mrs.”

“Miss” or “Ms.”?

Both “Miss” and “Ms.” apply to women who are unmarried or whose marital status is unknown. Which you choose depends on the preference of the woman. Interestingly, some newspaper editors avoid the issue by omitting titles and instead referring to men and women by their full names.


Prince Harry has said he knew his bride-to-be Meghan Markle was “the one” from the moment they met, as the couple made their first public appearance since the announcement of their engagement.

LET’S LEARN MORE#5: Do you school or study?


 Study VS School 
Do you study at SMP 5 ?

Is SMP 5 your school?

Study is a verb

School is a noun

Die, dead, death,died  
My Cat is dead.
It died yesterday.
Its death was a surprise.
Dead is an Adjective (a descriptive word)
Death is a Noun (a naming word)
Die is a Verb (an action word)
Died is the past tense of the verb Die
Job VS Work
Do you have a full-time JOB ?

I WORK from 8:00 until 5:00 today.

Job is a noun

Work is a verb


How do you address someone?

Pronounced “mister.”Pronounced “misses.”Pronounced “miss.”Pronounced “mizz.”
usually used with a man’s last name.usually used with a woman’s last name.usually used with a woman’s last name.usually used with a woman’s last name.
for example: “Please give this to Mr. Smith.”For example: “Please give this to Mrs Smith.”For example: “Please give this to Miss Smith.”For example: “Please give this to Ms Smith.”
It is not possible to know if the man is married or single.Used to refer to a married woman.Used to refer to a single woman.It is not possible to know if the woman is married or single.

LET’S LEARN MORE #3: at, in, or on?


He is good at Singing.Keep in touch while you’re away.I am on the bus.
I’ll meet you at 9 p.m.I’m interested  in teaching.They have a pic of New York on the wall.
I like getting up at dawn.We live in Roma.They went to Cuba on the first of July.
I will see them at  Christmas.I like to travel in (the) spring.He kissed me on my Cheek.
there were hundreds of people at  park.Sam was born in 1981.My favorite film is on TV right now.
Look at that man.I’ll be there in a couple of hours.The building is on fire.
I laughed at his joke.The pen is in the drawer.He studies on Fridays.
When did you arrive at the airport.Do you work in an office?The pen is on the Table.
She smiled at me.Jeff is in the garden.I will see Jack on his birthday.
Call me. I’m at home.I’m currently staying in a hotel.The flat is on the third floor.
She always visits her sister at work.In Japan, it often snows in October.He is on the Phone Right now.

Guidance for “at”, “on”, “in” for PLACES

  • “in” is used when dealing with “volume” (height, length, width). So when we say “in Jakarta” then Jakarta is considered as a big room
  • “on” is used when dealing with “the surface.” “on the table” means that the object touches the surface of the table
  • “at” when dealing with “point”.   “at the table” means surrounding the table and considered as a point

Let’s combine them with ” over” and “under” versus “above” and “below”

  • ” over” and “under” show a “vertical relationship”.  If “A” is over “B” then if we draw a vertical line, we can connect “A” and “B”
  • “above” and “below” show which one is higher and which one is lower. A good example is: ” The bridge is above the house” which means that the bridge is higher in position than the bridge. The bridge IS NOT “over” the house……..If it is so, then the bridge is in the sky(remember it is a vertical relationship). You can say that the homeless people live “under” the bridge(because they live exactly in the bridge construction……..though many of them live in slum area “below” the bridge.

So, we hope that you see the differences in:

  • I arrived in Jakarta (volume) or at Jakarta (as a point in the map)
  • We sit at the table (surrounding the table) but we don’t sit on the table (impolite, except a kid, maybe). The food is on the table while a big lamp is exactly over the table. Some smaller lamps are above the table. A cat is possibly under the table. Some toys are scratching (on the floor )below the table.

Let’s Learn More #1: Silent letters

How do you pronoun “knee?” : /kni:? or /ni: ??????

If you choose the first option, you are much influenced by Javanese. There is “/kni:/ that refers to a pipe joint.

Yes, you are supposed to choose the second option. Why? The letter “k” in “knee” is classified as a “silent letter” meaning that it is there(written) but it is not pronounced….